Sunday, January 11, 2009

Qualities of A Good Paragraph

A good paragraph is like a miniature essay. it has a clear beginning, middle, and ending. Strong paragraphs combine focus and attention to detail to develop a single idea thoroughly, and they help the reader transition from one idea to the next.

Consider the following when writing a paragraph:

1. UNITY - singleness or "oneness" of purpose. All the detail sentences clearly point to or support the topic sentence.

2. COHERENCE - all the sentences and ideas in the paragraph flow smoothly together to make clear and logical points about the topic. Coherence can be achieved through the use of:

A. A natural or easily recognized order:

> Time Order (Chronological) - arranging details or sentences as they happen according to time; usually used in writing narratives

> Space / Direction Order (Spatial) - arranging evidence in relation to space, direction or location

> Importance Order (Emphatic) - arranging details in order of importance or emphasis

> Step-by-Step (Sequential or Procedural) - arranging information according to numbers.

B. Transition Words and Phrases - used to show the connection from one sentence to another, or to signal a new train of thoughts

> Some common transitions:

a. For continuing a common line of reasoning: consequently, clearly, then, furthermore, additionally, and, in addition, because, besides that, in the same way, also, in the light of...
b. To change the line of reasoning: however, on the other hand, but, yet, nevertheless, on the contrary
c. For the final points of a paragraph or essay: finally, lastly
d. Transitional chains, to use in separating sections of a paragraph which is arranged chronologically:
- first, second, third...
- generally, furthermore, finally
- in the first place, also, lastly/finally
- in the first place, just in the same way, finally
- basically, similarly, as well as
e. To signal conclusion: therefore, this, hence, in conclusion, indeed
f. To restate a point within a paragraph in another way or in a more exacting way: after, afterwards, as soon as, at first, at last, before, before long, finally, in the first place, in the meantime, later, meanwhile, next, soon, then

C. Repetition of Key Words - important words or phrases (and their synonyms) may be repeated throughout a paragraph to connect the thoughts into a coherent statement.

D. Substitution of Pronouns for Key Nouns - use a key noun in one sentence and then use a pronoun in its place in the following sentences. When using pronouns consider the nouns to be replace by checking the nouns: 1. number - is the noun to be substituted singular of plural, 2. function in the sentence - is the noun to be replaced use as a possessive, a subject, or object, 3. gender - is the noun to be replaced a male, a female, a common noun or a neutre, 4. Person - is the noun to be replaced in the first, second, or third person.

E. Parallelism - use of the same grammatical structure in several sentences to establish coherence. The use of similar phrasing helps tie ideas and sentences together.

3. PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT -->- Support and evidence provided by the writer can be explained in different ways, These details can be provided by giving or using:
a. narration – telling a story
b. description – painting something or someone by use of words
c. comparison – showing how two subjects are similar
d. contrast – pointing out how two subjects are different from each other
e. example – providing illustrations or representatives of an idea or topic
f. classification – organizing or grouping together subjects with the same
qualities or characteristics
g. division – taking out a part from the whole to fully discuss or emphasize
how the part is integral to the whole
h. definition – giving the meaning of a term, idea, or concept
i. process analysis – telling how something is achieved or came to be; or
telling how to do something
j. cause and effect – showing reasons/results of a phenomena/process



chriswreckless said...

this was our lecture in comarts, btw i might check it out always for my lectures and reviewers thanks...
christian asuncion

endy smith said...

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